Canopy Monitoring Articles

  • Case study - Wilmott Dixon Canopy

    BRE-Watford System kWp: 2.25 Area: 28.6 m sq Inverter: Mastervolt Modules Used: PS-C Transparent Polysolar designed and supplied a retrofit roof garden canopy for Willmott Dixon Healthcare Campus at BRE Innovation Park, Watford. Objective: To provide a weather proof canopy designed to offer a warm light but shaded area for sitting out in while also contributing to ...


    By Polysolar Limited

  • Case study - Barbican Canopy

    London System kWp: 2.8 Area: 44.2 m sq Inverter: Kaco Modules Used: PS-C Transparent Series Polysolar supplied BIPV glazing units for a walkway canopy at Prior Weston Primary School, Barbican, London. Objective: Play area canopy designed to offer a dry and safe school yard extension, whilst reducing heat gain and glare in classrooms and providing renewable ...


    By Polysolar Limited

  • Managing slug pressure during harvest

    Growers should be mindful that slugs can thrive when there is no leaf canopy to protect the crop. This, combined with heavy rainfall and reports of increased slug populations this year, mean that good slug control at harvest is paramount. Top tips for slug control during harvest: Attention to detail During harvest focus on your attention ...


    By Certis UK

  • Electrically driven pumps with a canopy

    Clients regularly ask us for advice when planning their purchases. A common question concerns the electric pump sets: What is the advantage of an electric pump with a canopy compared to an open frame version? Whether it’s a mobile unit or a permanent installation used in the open air, electric pump sets with a closed canopy are growing in popularity every year. ...


    By BBA Pumps

  • Rainfall partitioning characteristics of three typical sand-fixing shrubs in Horqin Sand Land, north-eastern China

    Rainfall partitioning by vegetation affects water balance and utilization by plants. Caragana microphylla, Hedysarum fruticosum, and Salix gordejevii are three typical, morphologically different sand-fixing shrubs in Horqin Sand Land. However, few studies have compared rainfall partitioning by these shrubs. We examined rainfall partitioning differences among ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Stemflow and its controlling factors in the subshrub Artemisia ordosica during two contrasting growth stages in the Mu Us sandy land of northern China

    The yield of stemflow from vegetation is mostly affected by rainfall and canopy structure, but few past studies have paid attention to the dynamics of canopy structure during the growth season. Artemisia ordosica is a typical subshrub, very different from trees and shrubs. Assessing the influence of canopy structure and rainfall on stemflow yield in A. ordosica during the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • When planting trees does more harm than good

    Note to anyone who thinks planting trees is the bees’ knees: Grasslands are important, too. With forests disappearing at record rates and the carbon sequestration and other benefits of vegetation getting increasing visibility, tree-planting has become almost an iconic “environmentally friendly” activity. But in some cases it could do more harm than good, according to Iowa State ...


    By Ensia

  • Extreme Makeover: Photosynthesis Edition

    Plants are far better than humans at turning sunlight into food. But they’re not nearly as good as they could be: Thanks to quirks in the systems that have evolved to capture solar energy and use it to build sugars from carbon dioxide and water, the conversion efficiency of photosynthesis is but a few percent at best. With the need to produce more crops growing even faster than human ...


    By Ensia

  • Observations and snow model simulations of winter energy balance terms within and between different coniferous forests in southern boreal Finland

    Variation of canopy properties between different forest types is seldom taken into account in hydrological and climate models, and consideration of variation inside a forest is normally omitted. In this work, three data sets on near surface energy balance terms (incoming shortwave and longwave radiation; air and snow–soil interface temperatures) were collected in the southern boreal coniferous ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • First attempt to measure rainfall canopy interception loss, throughfall, and stemflow in Juglans regia Linn and Cup. Sempervirens L. Var. fastigiata in the north of Iran

    Each individual tree significantly alters the growth of surrounding vegetation by partitioning of rainfall and nutrients to the rooting zone. The Iranian Hyrcanian forests are among one of the most fragile ecosystems of the country owing to large industrial activities for logging and extensive urbanisation. These may accelerate disturbing of this unique type of forest. Of concern currently is an ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Development and integration of a subgrid urban surface scheme in a limited area model

    The sub-grid model, sub-grid town energy budget (STEB), is developed in order to reproduce the surface energy budget over large urban areas. The STEB evaluates the energy budget of each building belonging to a built area by employing an accurate description of the canyon geometry. The STEB is coupled with the limited area model RAMS to simulate the urban heat island over the city of Rome, Italy. ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • The effects of Picea schrenkiana forest litter on snow surface albedo

    In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of the snow albedo of different underlying surfaces based on measurements of shortwave radiation and observations of forest litter on snow surfaces, both in an open, unforested environment and in areas with differing forest canopy openness. The fractional litter coverage was obtained through the binarization of digital photos of forest litter ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The impact of beetle-induced conifer death on stand-scale canopy snow interception

    Bark beetles have killed more than 100,000 km2 of pine forest in western North America, causing trees to lose the majority of their canopy material and potentially leading to enhanced subcanopy snow accumulation. Over a 45-day period, we tested this hypothesis by measuring daily snow accumulation in three living and two dead lodgepole pine stands and in three adjacent clearings. The largest ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Threshold velocity of pollination in urban area of the city of Brno

    Wind velocity directly influences pollen release rate from mother plants and subsequently, the transport of pollen grains. The threshold velocity of pollination is defined as the lowest wind velocity with evidence of pollen concentration above the threshold pollen concentration. Only a limited number of published papers deal with the relationship between wind velocity and pollen concentration. ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • LAGFLUM, a stationary 3D Lagrangian stochastic numerical micromixing model for concentration fluctuations: validation in canopy turbulence, on the MUST wind tunnel experiment

    A stationary three–dimensional Lagrangian stochastic numerical model, LAGrangian FLUctuation Model (LAGFLUM), was developed by coupling a macromixing with a micromixing scheme, to determine the mean and the variance of concentration for a passive scalar in 3D turbulent flows. The model was tested by comparison with the (MUST) Mock Urban Setting Test wind tunnel experiment, where the dispersion of ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Measurement of Canopy/Vegetation Reflectance with the UniSpec-DC

    A good method for sampling reflectance of vegetation canopies is to connect a flexible, lightweight fiber optic cable (also referred to as “Foreoptic”) of a desired length to the detector. This requires a fiber optic with an SMA type connector at one end (to thread on to the detector) and a foreoptic with a defined field-of-view (FOV) at the other end (to limit the field of view to a ...


    By PP Systems

  • Evaluating the models of stomatal conductance response to humidity in a tropical rain forest of Xishuangbanna, southwest China

    The ecosystem-level fluxes of water vapour and carbon dioxide were measured from 2003 to 2006 at a tropical rain forest in Xishuangbanna, southwest China, using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. These flux measurements allowed the canopy-level evaluation of stomatal conductance (g) response to humidity models. The results showed that both the BWB model and the Leuning model discussed here ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Gore-Tex, House Wrap and Stomates

    Want to develop an appreciation for Gore-Tex? All you need is five minutes in a rubber raincoat. But how do you know whether the North Face knock-off you've just purchased in China for a ridiculously low price is Gore-Tex or rubber? If you're a Decagon researcher, you dash back to your hotel room and clamp a porometer onto the fabric. Decagon's porometer was designed to measure stomatal ...


    By METER Group, Inc.

  • Web of knowledge, web of life, web of wonder

    It"s October, it"s late in the season and it"s been a bad year for mushrooms in Finland. Webcaps, a type of mushroom found particularly in the boreal and temperate forests of northern Europe, are no exception. Webcaps play an important role in these forest ecosystems. They are mycorrhizal fungi that live in symbiosis with the trees, providing nutrients and protection from diseases and receiving ...

  • Eastern gamagrass management for pasture in the Mid-Atlantic region: ii. diet and canopy characteristics, and stand persistence

    Eastern gamagrass [Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L.] (EG), a native warm-season perennial grass, lacks evaluation for use in grazing systems. Our objective was to test EG in a 4-yr experiment to estimate forage mass (FM) that maximizes steer (Bos taurus) performance and pasture productivity. Pasture canopy characteristics, diet selection by grazing steers, and stand persistence from EG continuously ...

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