The cotton is one of the most Worldwide Spreads crops, due to the production of the fibre to the textile industry and the oil of its seeds. The worldwide production is of 26 millions of tons of seeds. The main producers are China, United States and India, although cotton is produced in more than 100 countries.
Climate and soil requirements
The cotton grows in different climates such as tropical, subtropical and mild climates. The development of the crop depends on the temperature. The optimum temperature of germination varies between 20ºC and 25 ºC with a minimum temperature of 15ºC and a maximum of 35ºC. To the blooming it is necessary an average temperature that varies between 20ºC and 30ºC. To the maturing of the capsule it is necessary an average temperature between 25ºC and 30ºC.
The soils need to be deep and able to retain water, maintaining humidity during the whole cycle of the crop.
The saline soils are well tolerated by the plant without suffering any type of decrease in its productive output.
The spacing can vary according to the type of harvest; manual or mechanical. When the harvest is mechanical the distance between lines can change between 0,9m and 1m. When the harvest is manual it is recommended a sow width of 0,8m.
Not only the quantity of water determines the production, but also the timely application moment required by the crop physiology. It is necessary to know the requirements of water on each phenologic moment of the crop to obtain the maximum economic output.
There are different irrigation methods in the cotton cultivation; drip irrigation is the most commonly used technique nowadays. The application of irrigation is homogeneous and uniform. In the drip irrigation the water can be applied accurately and frequently. It is an effective method to manipulate the growing and the production, and thanks to it we can obtain record outputs.