Keywords: urban agriculture, developing countries, environmental sanitation, resource management, reuse, excreta, wastewater, solid waste, nutrient recycling
A systematic overview of urban agriculture in developing countries from an environmental point of view
Urban agriculture can contribute to food security and poverty alleviation in developing countries. It can also help to improve public health and resource management by reusing excreta, wastewater and organic solid waste. This paper presents a systematic overview of urban agriculture in low and middle-income countries and identifies research needs. The cross-cutting issues, especially between urban agriculture and environmental sanitation, which is defined as excreta, wastewater and solid waste management, are of key importance. Quantification of the benefits, risks, opportunities and constraints of urban agriculture is essential from a resource and waste management point of view. The role of urban agriculture with regard to water and organic material flows in regions has to be investigated. Research is also needed to quantify the impact of reusing excreta, wastewater and organic solid waste on food quality and the environment.