John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Accumulation of 2,4‐dinitroanisole in the earthworm Eisenia fetida from chemically spiked and aged natural soils

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An initiative within the U.S. military is targeting the replacement of traditional munitions constituents with insensitive munitions (IM) to reduce risk of accidental detonation. The bioavailability and bioaccumulative potential of the IM compound 2,4‐dinitroanisole (DNAN) to Eisenia fetida was assessed in soils with different geochemical characteristics. Prior to exposure, soils were chemically spiked with DNAN and aged for 1 or 29 weeks. Transformation products 2‐ and 4‐amino‐nitroanisole (2A‐4NAN and 4A‐2NAN) occurred in aged soils and their pore water, but never at concentrations higher than the residual DNAN. SumDNAN (sum of DNAN, 2A‐4NAN, and 4A‐2NAN) in soil decreased with aging, likely by irreversible binding. Both clay and organic matter contents of the soil appeared to affect the bioavailability of DNAN. SumDNAN body residues of earthworms approached apparent steady‐state after 1 d and remained relatively constant through to day 7. Higher concentrations of 2A‐4NAN and 4A‐2NAN measured in worm tissues relative to those in soil suggest reductive transformation of DNAN in the tissues. Mean bioaccumulation factors (ratio of tissue to soil concentrations) varied from 1.2 to 4.3 while mean bioconcentration factors (ratio of tissue to pore water concentrations) ranged from 1.4 to 3.2. Pore water seems to play a significant role in the accumulation of DNAN in earthworms, consistent with equilibrium partitioning theory. The concentration of DNAN in soil pore water could serve as an indicator of bioavailability as well as predictor of the concentration of that compound in earthworms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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