Keywords: low radiation levels, stochastic effects, interspecies differences, genetic effects, nonspecific reparation mechanism, radiobiology, malignant neoplasms, inherited diseases, radiation effects models, radiation exposure
Actual and discussible issues of 21st century radiobiology
In this paper, modern radiobiological issues related to the uncertainties of health effects induced by Low Radiation Exposure (LRE) are considered, particularly the radiation effect on the probability of major somatic consequences, including malignant neoplasms and inherited diseases. The existing models of radiation effects (linear nonthreshold, threshold and hormesis models) are critically analysed, including their limitations, advantages and disadvantages. The virtual model of the LRE being an extreme health danger supported by a large group of Russian specialists is especially criticised, which model excludes the real ability to regulate radiation exposure. The nonspecific repair mechanism is proposed; this mechanism developed in human beings during their evolution, and explains the large interspecies differences of LRE genetic effects, which reach a maximum in fruit flies, are less expressed in mice and are nonrecorded in humans.