John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Additive effects of mean temperature, temperature variability, and chlorothalonil to red‐eyed treefrog (Agalychnis callidryas) larvae

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Amphibian populations are declining globally, and multiple anthropogenic stressors, including contamination by pesticides and shifting climates are driving these declines. Climate change may increase average temperatures or increase temperature variability, either of which may affect susceptibility of non‐target organisms to contaminants. We conducted 8‐day ecotoxicological assays with red‐eyed treefrog (Agalychnis callidryas) larvae to test for additive and interactive effects of exposure to the fungicide chlorothalonil, average temperature, and temperature variability on tadpole growth and survival. We collected egg masses from seasonal ponds at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica and exposed tadpoles to a series of chlorothalonil concentrations across a range of ecologically‐relevant mean temperatures (23.4 ‐ 27.3°C) and daily temperature fluctuations (1.1 ‐ 9.9°C). We measured survival each day and measured tadpole growth at the end of each trial. Concentrations of chlorothalonil ≥60µg/L reduced survival, though survival was not affected by mean temperature or daily temperature range, and there were no synergistic interactions between chlorothalonil and temperature regime on survival. Chlorothalonil suppressed tadpole growth at relatively low concentrations (∼15µg/L). There were impacts of both average temperature and daily temperature range on tadpole growth, though there were no synergistic interactions between temperature regimes and chlorothalonil. Our study should inform efforts to manage ecosystems impacted by multiple large‐scale anthropogenic stressors as well as methods for the design of ecologically‐appropriate toxicology trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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