Keywords: Belgium, migrant workers, underground economy, illegal economy, illegal immigrants, illegal employment, undocumented employment, black economy, foreign workers
An empirical study of the underground economy in the Kingdom of Belgium
This article investigates the underground economy in Belgium. Although several government initiatives are attempting to combat underground economic activities, we found illegal foreign workers identifying opportunities and fulfilling market needs. Underground employment thus thrives in a variety of sectors, including the building sector, cleaning houses, delivery jobs, garage business, horticulture, hotels, industrial cleaning, and social work.