John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Assessing the fate and effects of an insecticidal formulation

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A three‐year study was conducted on a corn field in Central Illinois, USA, to understand the fate and effects of an insecticidal formulation containing the active ingredients phostebupirim and cyfluthrin. The objectives of the current study were to 1) determine the best tillage practice (conventional versus conservation tillage) in terms of grain yields and potential environmental risk, 2) assess insecticidal exposure using concentrations measured in soil and runoff water and sediments, 3) compare measured insecticidal concentrations to predicted concentrations from selected risk assessment exposure models, and 4) calculate toxicity benchmarks from laboratory bioassays performed on reference aquatic and terrestrial non‐target organisms, using individual active ingredients and the formulation. Corn grain yields were not significantly different based on tillage treatment. Similarly, field concentrations of insecticides were not significantly (p>0.05) different in strip tillage versus conventional tillage, suggesting that neither of the tillage systems would enable greater environmental risk from the insecticidal formulation. Risk quotients were calculated from field concentrations and toxicity data to determine potential risk to non‐target species. The insecticidal formulation used at the recommended rate resulted in soil, sediment, and water concentrations that were potentially harmful to aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, if exposure occurred, with risk quotients up to 34. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC

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