John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Barley root hair growth and morphology in soil, sand, and water solution media and relationship with nickel toxicity

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Barley, Hordeum vulgare (Doyce), was grown in the three media of soil, hydroponic sand solution (sand), and hydroponic water solution (water) culture at the same environmental conditions for 4 d (days). Barley roots were scanned and root morphology was analyzed. Plants grown in the three media had different root morphology and Ni toxicity response. Root elongations and total root lengths followed the sequence of soil > sand > water. Plants grown in water culture were more sensitive to Ni toxicity and had greater root hair length than those from soil and sand cultures, which increased its root surface area. The unit root surface area as root surface area per cm length of root followed the sequence of water > sand > soil, and was found to be related with root elongation. With including the unit root surface area, the difference in root elongation and EC50 (half maximal effective concentration) was diminished, and % root elongations can be improved with root mean square error around 10% for plants grown in different media. As the unit root surface area of plants in sand culture is closer to that in soil culture, the sand culture method, not water culture, is recommended for toxicity parameters estimation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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