Lyme borreliosis, the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in North America, is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Given the extensive genetic polymorphism of B. burgdorferi, elucidation of the population genetic structure of the bacterium in clinical samples may be relevant for understanding disease pathogenesis and may have applicability for the development of diagnostic tests and vaccine preparations. In this investigation, the genetic polymorphism of the 16S-23S rRNA (rrs-rrlA) intergenic spacer and ospC was investigated at the sequence level in 127 clinical isolates obtained from patients with early Lyme borreliosis evaluated in suburban New York City. Sixteen distinct rrs-rrlA and 16 distinct ospC alleles were identified, representing virtually all of the genotypes previously found in questing Ixodes scapularis nymphs in this region. In addition, a new ospC group was identified in a single patient. The strong linkage observed between the chromosome-located rrs-rrlA and plasmid-borne ospC genes suggests a clonal structure of B. burgdorferi in these isolates, despite evidence of recombination at ospC.
- American Society for Microbiology
- Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is clonal in patients with ...
The Shingles Vaccine Zostavax Actually Causes Shingles
Zostavax, the anti-shingles vaccine manufactured by Merck has been found to not only cause shingles, but can also cause severe complications of shingles as well. The vaccine is composed of weakened live viruses intended to generate an immune response to prevent future shingles outbreaks. However, the live viruses can actually cause shingles. Since the FDA approval in 2006, more than 1,100 serious adverse events were reported with at least 90 of these associated with death. In addition to the risks of complications,...
How to Protect Against Colds and Flu: The Facts that you Need to Know About.
Seasonal flu is not only unpleasant for employers and employees, it’s expensive. Each flu season, nearly 111 million workdays are lost because of the flu, the US Department of Health & Human Services has found. That represents approximately $7 billion per year in sick days and lost productivity. Most of us have seen a sick co-worker trying to make his way through the workday instead of being home resting or in bed. But coming to work with a cold, flu or other illness is a bad idea. It can make all of...
We’re all in this together — let’s start acting like it
Vaccines have sparked a conversation about the need to collectively protect each other — a conversation we need to apply to environmental challenges. Ever since a small percentage of U.S. parents decided to delay or forgo vaccinating their children against diseases like measles and whooping cough — some of which have been declared eliminated in the U.S. — many people have been upset, saying that parents of unvaccinated kids are putting everyone in danger. Those parents, the reasoning goes, are...
Influence of solar water disinfection on immunity against cholera – a review
Cholera remains a problem in developing countries. This is attributed to the unavailability of proper water treatment, sanitary infrastructure and poor hygiene. As a consequence, countries facing cholera outbreaks rely on interventions such as the use of oral rehydration therapy and antibiotics to save lives. In addition to vaccination, the provision of chlorine tablets and hygiene sensitization drives have been used to prevent new cholera infections. The implementation of these interventions remains a challenge...
Science and development highlights of 2012
The year was marked by one of the most anticipated global environmental meetings in 20 years: the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The summit was a major step towards hammering out a development roadmap to follow after the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) expire in 2015. SciDev.Net analysed the key milestones, from the launch of UN`s draft negotiating document, `The Future We Want`, the ambivalent welcome of the document by the scientific and engineering...