Comparative study of isotherm parameters of lead biosorption by two wastes of olive-oil production

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Batch isotherm studies were carried out on a laboratory scale: (i) to investigate the effectiveness to remove lead of two wastes (olive stone (OS) and olive tree pruning (OTP)), untreated and chemically treated; and (ii) to examine the applicability of various adsorption isotherms to fit the experimental data. Results from tests were analyzed using seven equilibrium isotherm correlations (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin–Radushkevich, Temkin, Redlich–Peterson, Sips, and Toth equations). The sum of the squares of the errors was determined for each isotherm and the Langmuir equation provided the best fit. Chemical treatments increased the biosorption properties of these materials. The maximum biosorption capacities were: 6.33, 49.13, 14.83, and 38.93 mg g−1 for untreated OS, HNO3-OS, H2SO4-OS, and NaOH-OS, respectively, and 26.72, 86.40, 72.78, and 123.80 mg g−1 for untreated OTP, HNO3-OTP, H2SO4-OTP, and NaOH-OTP, respectively. Finally, the loss of mass for each waste (13.9, 14.3, and 36.8% for HNO3-OS, H2SO4-OS, and NaOH-OS and 35.1, 27.5, and 46.7% for HNO3-OTP, H2SO4-OTP, and NaOH-OTP, respectively) was taken into account and an effectiveness coefficient was determined for each adsorbent material.

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