Composition, vigor, and proteome of mature soybean seeds developed under high temperature
The effects of high temperature treatment on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed composition, vigor, and proteome were investigated using mature dry seeds harvested from plants grown in environment-controlled chambers. High day/night temperatures (37/30°C) from stages R5 through R8 altered ratios of individual fatty acids to total fatty acid compared to the control (27/18°C). Concentration of sugars decreased, but total protein and phytic acid concentration were unchanged. High temperature resulted in a greater proportion of abnormal seeds, but normal-appearing seed exhibited reduced germination and vigor. Proteomic analysis detected 20 protein identities whose accumulations were changed by the high temperature. Fourteen spots were identified as seven subunits of seed storage proteins. The remaining six proteins were identified as those responding to abiotic stresses or having a function in respiration: (i) sucrose binding protein, (ii) Class III acidic endochitinase, (iii) heat shock protein (HSP22), (iv) late embryo abundant protein, (v) Bowman–Birk proteinase inhibitor, and (vi) formate dehydrogenase. High temperature during seed development changed soybean seed composition and decreased seed vigor, but also changed seed protein expression profiles.