John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Development of a fluoride chronic effects benchmark for aquatic life in freshwater

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Courtesy of John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Canada has an interim water quality guideline (WQG) for fluoride for protection of freshwater aquatic life that dates from 2002; one Canadian province has a different interim WQG for fluoride that dates to 1995. The US does not have a national benchmark for fluoride in freshwater, only one us state has such a benchmark. There are no other national or regional benchmarks for fluoride chronic toxicity in freshwater. Available data on the acute and chronic toxicity of fluoride to freshwater aquatic life were compiled and reviewed. Acute toxicity was reported to occur at concentrations ranging from 11.5 to >800 mg/l f‐. The majority of chronic effects occur at concentrations between 1.8 and 195 mg/l. A total of 10 chronic studies representing 16 species (five fish, seven invertebrates, and four algae/aquatic plants) were used to derive a chronic effects benchmark of 1.94 mg/l f‐, applying the species sensitivity distribution approach. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC

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