Dry Bean landrace and cultivar performance in stressed and nonstressed organic and conventional production systems

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High-yielding cultivars adapted to stressed and nonstressed production systems (PS) would maximize efficiency of soil water and nutrient usage, compete well with weeds, resist diseases and insect pests, and reduce dependence on water, fertilizer, and pesticide. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the performance of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces and cultivars across seven stressed and nonstressed PS, (ii) identify high-yielding cultivars within and across PS, and (iii) determine associations among PS. Three landraces and 13 cultivars were evaluated for days to maturity, 100-seed weight, and yield in 2003 and 2004. The PS and genotype effects and their interactions with years were significant (P < 0.01). The mean yield (740 kg ha–1), 100-seed weight (28 g), and days to maturity (81 d) were least in the on-farm organic low input (OFOL) PS. The greatest mean yield (2740 kg ha–1) was obtained in the on-station conventional (OSCN) PS, while the greatest 100-seed weight (35 g) and days to maturity (95) were obtained in the on-farm low soil fertility (OFLF) PS. Red genotypes yielded more across all PS. ‘Bill Z’ in OSCN and on-farm organic high-input (OFOH) PS, ‘UI 239’ in on-station continual bean production (OSCB), CO46348 in on-station drought-stressed production (OSDS), ‘Matterhorn’ in on-farm conventional (OFCN), ‘NW 63’ in OFLF, and ‘Buster’ in OFOL had high yield. CO46348, UI 239, NW 63, and Bill Z had high yields across PS. Positive associations for yield in the OFCN occurred with yield across all PS except OFOL. The latter was not correlated with other PS. Thus, testing in the OFCN PS would be pivotal for development of high-yielding cultivars for diverse PS, while testing at OFOL would need to be done for cultivars developed for use in that PS.

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