Duckweed offers the promise of a co-benefit culture combining water purification with biomass production. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus P23 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from a duckweed, Lemna aequinoctialis. This study quantified its growth-promoting effect on three duckweeds (L. aoukikusa, L. minor, and Spirodela polyrhiza) in sterile Hoagland solution and evaluated its usefulness in duckweed culture under non-sterile conditions. P23 promoted growth of three duckweeds in sterile Hoagland solution at low to high nutrient concentrations (1.25–10 mg NO3-N/L and 0.25–2.0 mg PO4-P/L). It increased the biomass production of L. aequinoctialis 3.8–4.3-fold, of L. minor 2.3–3.3-fold, and of S. polyrhiza 1.4–1.5-fold after 7 days compared with noninoculated controls. P23 also increased the biomass production of L. minor 2.4-fold in pond water and 1.7-fold in secondary effluent of a sewage treatment plant under non-sterile conditions at laboratory-scale experiments. P23 rescued L. minor from growth inhibition caused by microorganisms indigenous to the pond water. The results demonstrate that the use of P23 in duckweed culture can improve the efficiency of duckweed biomass production, and a positive effect of P23 on duckweed-based wastewater treatment can be assumed.