Evaluation of butachlor for control of submerged macrophytes along with its impact on biotic components of freshwater system
The use of pesticides whether herbicides or insecticides is indispensable in modern agriculture technology to control pests or weeds for the production of more food and management of public health, both in developed and developing countries. Today about 4500 pesticides are in general use all over the world, out of which 25 have high toxicity potential to a wide range of flora and fauna of economic importance (Adhikary and Sahu, 2001). Most of these are not readily degradable but persists for a considerable period, thereby affecting aquatic biota, specially fish, which are very important due to theft nutritive food value (Annon, 1962). Herbicides are extensively used to control aquatic macrophytes in different parts of the world. The present investigation was taken up to test the efficacy of butachlor against some dominant submerged freshwater angiospermic macrophytes and also to study the impact of this chemical on some important biotic components like fish, zooplankton and aquatic fern.