Examination of Salmonella and Escherichia Coli translocation from hog manure to forage, soil, and cattle grazed on the hog manure-treated pasture
Use of hog (Sus scrofa) manure as a fertilizer is a practical solution for waste re-utilization, however, it may serve as a vehicle for environmental and domestic animal contamination. Work was conducted to determine whether pathogens, naturally present in hog manure could be detected in cattle (Bos taurus) grazed on the manure-treated pasture, and whether forage contamination occurred. During two 3 mo summer trials manure was applied to yield 124 kg available N per hectare in a single spring or split spring and fall application. Samples of hog manure, forage, soil, and cattle feces were analyzed for naturally occurring Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Escherichia coli. To follow movement of Salmonella in the environment isolates were identified to serovar and serotyped. Transfer of E. coli from hog manure to soil and cattle was examined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of >600 E. coli isolates. While Y. enterocolitica was absent from all samples, in both years S. enterica Derby and S. enterica Krefeld were found in most hog manure samples, but were only on forage samples in the second year. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, absent from hog manure was present on some forage in the first year. Cattle feces and soil samples were consistently Salmonella negative. These contaminations could not be traced to manure application. During this study, Salmonella and E. coli found in hog manure had different RAPD genomic profiles from those found in the feces of cattle grazing on manure-treated pasture.