This study aimed to find key factors influencing the decisions of farmers regarding the adoption of water-saving practices including the rice-controlling irrigation technique, drip irrigation under plastic film, and sprinkling irrigation in Heilongjiang Province, China. It was found that reliability of the water source and government promotion had very significant and positive associations with the probability of adoption. The number of household adults was a slightly significant factor that was positively associated with the probability of adoption. Risks of agricultural water-saving technologies, educational level of the respondents, soil texture, oil price, access to electric power, and access to labor were potential factors affecting the choice of agricultural water-saving technologies. Technical complexity, investment, water source, soil texture, oil price, and lack of electric power also impacted the adoption of these three agricultural water-saving technologies. These conclusions were obtained from a binary logistic model estimated from the results of a survey of 97 smallholder farmers from two typical cities in Heilongjiang Province. Finally, some recommendations are made to promoters of agricultural water-saving technologies.