Fate of Chlorothalonil, Chlorpyrifos and Profenofos in a Vegetable Farm in cameron Highlands, Malaysia
The fate of chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos and profenofos in sandy loam soil under tropical condition was studied in a vegetable plot in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The plot was treated with chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos and profenofos according to normal agricultural practices of the Cameron Highlands. Water (runoff and lysimeter), soil and bedload sediment samples were taken according to a sampling schedule. Residues in water, soil and bedload sediment samples were laboratory analysed to determine amount. Chlorothalonil residues were detected in the range of < 0.01–0.08 mg/kg in the soil, < 0.01–0.02 ng/mL in the leachate, < 0.01–0.02 ng/mL in the runoff and < 0.01–0.11mg/kg in the sediment. Field studies of chlorpyrifos showed residue levels of < 0.01–0.06 mg/kg in the soil, < 0.01–0.07 ng/mL in the leachate, < 0.01–0.08 ng/mL in the runoff and < 0.01–0.62 mg/kg in the sediment. Residue levels of profenofos were detected in the range of < 0.01–0.02 mg/kg in the soil, < 0.01–0.87 ng/mL in the leachate, < 0.01–0.08 ng/mL in the runoff and < 0.01–0.35 mg/kg in the sediment. The three pesticides dissipated rapidly, with DT50 (time for 50% loss) of less than two days. The study showed that these pesticides dissipated rapidly under the climatic conditions of the Cameron Highlands in Malaysia.