Worries about liability and tightening regulations are driving changes in manure management practices. When you consider that for example there may be 4000 lagoons in North Carolina alone. The statistical probability of all 4000 lagoons being constructed and managed properly would be quite an accomplishment. Even if 100% successful in that endeavor, the liability is an overhang that can't be ignored.
Filter manure slurries directly before, after, or in place of anearobic digesters with a reverse osmosis VSEP membrane system, providing potable water for the animals and a concentrated nutrient feedstock for fertilizer.
If constructed and managed properly, the age-old lagoon method of manure handling is a reliable method of storing and treating livestock waste. Lagoon storage followed by sprayfield application on local farms has proven to be a very symbiotic and effective method throughout the ages. However, the recent trend in the hog production and the cattle industry is towards larger centralized operations housing thousands of animals in a confined area. The problem that arises is that the local biosphere used for dispersing the waste is fixed in size and has limited capacity to absorb manure fertilizer. Nutrient overload, pathogen release, excessive odor emissions, and tributary eutrophication are potential threats when operating a manure production facility at or near the limits of the land.