Keywords: global convergence, intellectual property rights, IPR, innovation, biotechnology, institutions, seed markets, technology transfer, developing countries, India, protection models
Global convergence meets local divergence: intellectual property in Indian seed markets
International organisations advocate global convergence in intellectual property as a prerequisite for successful innovation strategies. The difficulties of achieving such harmonisation are, however, evident from the attempts of several nations to develop divergent intellectual property systems. This paper explores the causes of institutional divergence and uses intellectual property for seed markets in India as a case study. The Indian seed market case demonstrates that convergence and divergence may go hand in hand. The 'domestication' of global protection models for seed and biotechnology may require divergence in order to be accepted by domestic stakeholders.