John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hexabromocyclododecane in consumer fish from South China: Implications for human exposure via dietary intake

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Levels of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in 12 consumer fish species from South China. The concentrations of the sum of HBCD diastereoisomers (ΣHBCD) ranged from nondetectable to 194 pg/g wet weight, with a detectable frequency of 70%. This was at the low end of the concentration range globally observed. Carnivorous fish species contained higher HBCD concentrations than herbivorous and detritivorous ones, suggesting the potential for biomagnification of HBCDs via the trophic chain. Moreover, ΣHBCD concentrations were higher in both freshwater and seawater farmed fish than in wild marine fish, indicating that human activities were probably an important input source of HBCD in aquaculture. Among the three diastereoisomers, α‐HBCD dominated in most samples, with a mean relative abundance of 70%. In agreement with previous studies, a difference in the diastereomer patterns was observed from commercial products and several environmental media to biota samples. For farm‐raised snubnose pompano, the concentrations of ΣHBCD were moderately linearly correlated with lipid contents but were not significantly correlated with fish body lengths and weights. In the worst‐case exposure, the mean estimated daily intake of ΣHBCD via fish consumption for residents of South China ranged from 13 to 16 pg/kg body weight/d for various age groups, much lower than its lowest observed adverse effect level derived from a two‐generation reproductive toxicity study on rats. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2012 SETAC

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