John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Identification of inter‐specific differences in phase II reactions: Determination of metabolites in the urine of 16 mammalian species exposed to environmental pyrene

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Inter‐specific differences in xenobiotic metabolism are a key to determining relative sensitivity of animals to xenobiotics. However, information in domesticated livestock, companion animals, and captive and free‐ranging wildlife is incomplete. The present study evaluated inter‐specific differences in phase‐II conjugation using pyrene (PY) as a non‐destructive biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure. PAHs and their metabolites have carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting effects in human and wildlife, and can have serious consequences. We collected urine from 16 mammalian species and analyzed PY metabolites. Inter‐specific differences in urinary PY metabolites, especially in the concentration and composition of phase‐II conjugated metabolites were apparent. Glucuronide conjugates are dominant metabolites in the urine of many species, including deer, cattle, pigs, horses, and humans. However, they could not be detected in ferret urine even though the gene for ferret UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase 1A6 is not a pseudogene. Sulfate conjugates were detected mainly in the urine of cats, ferrets and rabbits. Interestingly, sulfate conjugates were detected in pig urine. Although pigs are known to have limited aryl sulfotransferase (SULT) activity, this study demonstrated pig liver was active in 1‐hydroxypyrene sulfation. These findings have some application for biomonitoring environmental pollution. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC

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