Identification of the Herbicide Surflan and Its Active Ingredient Oryzalin, a Dinitrosulfonamide, as Xenoestrogens
Numerous environmental contaminants have been identified as endocrine disruptors (EDs) — substances that alter endocrine homeostasis by interfering with the biological action, production, or pharmacokinetics of endogenous hormones. Xenoestrogens are those EDs whose biological activity is similar to endogenous estrogen. This report presents data that identified Surflan, a proprietary herbicide emulsion, and its active ingredient oryzalin as xenoestrogens. In vitro, Surflan and oryzalin activated an estrogen-inducible reporter gene, and oryzalin competitively displaced 17-estradiol from the estrogen receptor. In vivo, Surflan and oryzalin induced expression of estrogen-regulated high-molecular-weight choriogenin genes in medaka (Oryzias latipes). These results are consistent with the characteristics of previously identified xenoestrogens and indicate that Surflan and oryzalin have the potential to adversely affect numerous estrogen-regulated biological processes.