John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Impacts of 2,4‐D aquatic herbicide formulations on reproduction and development of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

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The authors studied the effects of two 2,4‐Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dimethylamine salt (2,4‐D) herbicide formulations on fathead minnow reproduction, embryonic development, and larval survival. Groups of reproductively mature fathead minnows were exposed for 28 days to 0.00, 0.05, 0.50, and 2.00 ppm 2,4‐D (target), in a flow‐through system. Weedestroy® AM40 significantly (p < 0.05) depressed male tubercle presence and significantly increased female gonadosomatic index (GSI), and there were statistical trends (0.05 < p < 0.10) for effects on fecundity, and hepatic vitellogenin mRNA expression in females and males. DMA® 4 IVM also significantly depressed male tubercle presence. Gonads of females exposed to DMA® 4 IVM exhibited significantly depressed stage of oocyte maturation, significantly increased severity of oocyte atresia, and a significant presence of an unidentified tissue type. DMA® 4 IVM significantly decreased larval survival. DMA4 had no impact on hepatic Vitellogenin mRNA expression or GSI. No significant effects on fertilization, hatchability, or embryonic development were observed in either trial. Formulations exhibited different toxicological profiles than pure 2,4‐D. These data suggest the formulations have the potential for endocrine disruption and can exert some degree of chronic toxicity. The present use of 2,4‐D formulations in lake management practices, and their permitting based on the toxicological profile of 2,4‐D pure compound should be reconsidered. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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