John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Individual and mixture effects of caffeine and sulfamethoxazole on the daggerblade grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio following maternal exposure

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Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) such as caffeine and sulfamethoxazole have been detected in the estuarine environment. The present study characterized effects of a maternal exposure of these compounds on the development of the daggerblade grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio from embryo to juvenile life stage. Ovigerous females were exposed to either caffeine (20 mg/L), sulfamethoxazole (60 mg/L), or a mixture of both (20 mg/L caffeine and 60 mg/L sulfamethoxazole). Embryos were then removed from the females and the effects of the PPCPs on hatching, metamorphosis, juvenile growth, and overall mortality were determined. No significant effect was observed on gravid female survival after 5 d of exposure to caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, or the mixture; however, development of the embryos on the female shrimp was delayed in the mixture. Caffeine and sulfamethoxazole in the mixture significantly reduced embryo survival. There was a significant effect of caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, and the mixture on embryo hatching time. Exposure to sulfamethoxazole alone significantly delayed larval metamorphosis. Exposure to caffeine and sulfamethoxazole separately led to significantly smaller length of juvenile shrimp. Maternal exposure to caffeine and sulfamethoxazole, individually and in mixture, resulted in negative effects on P. pugio offspring survival and development; however, the concentrations tested in the present study were well above maximum detected field concentrations. These results may be incorporated into PPCP risk assessments to protect sensitive estuarine ecosystems more effectively. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;9999:1–6. © 2014 SETAC

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