John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Interactive effects of temperature and glyphosate on the behavior of blue ridge two‐lined salamanders, Eurycea wilderae

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Courtesy of John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential interactive effects of stream temperatures and environmentally relevant glyphosate‐based herbicide concentrations on movement and anti‐predator behaviors of larval Eurycea wilderae (Blue Ridge two‐lined salamander). Larval salamanders were exposed to one of four environmentally relevant glyphosate concentrations (0.00 µg a.e./L, 0.73 µg a.e./L, 1.46 µg a.e./L, and 2.92 µg a.e./L) at either ambient (12°C) or elevated (23°C) water temperatures. Behaviors observed included the exploration of a novel habitat, use of refuge, habitat selection relative to a potential predator, and burst movement distance. In the absence of glyphosate, temperature consistently affected movement and refuge use behavior with individuals moving longer distances more frequently and using refuge less at warm temperatures; however, when glyphosate was added, we observed inconsistent effects of temperature that may result from differential toxicity at various temperatures. Larval salamanders made shorter, more frequent movements and demonstrated reduced burst distance at higher glyphosate concentrations. We also found that lower glyphosate concentrations sometimes had stronger effects than higher concentrations (i.e., non‐monotonic dose responses), suggesting that standard safety tests conducted only at higher glyphosate concentrations might overlook important sub‐lethal effects on salamander behavior. These data demonstrate that sublethal effects of glyphosate‐based herbicides on natural behaviors of amphibians can occur with short‐term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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