biological composting Articles

  • Composting

    Introduction Composting is a controlled biological process by which organic contaminants (e.g., PAHs) are converted by microorganisms (under aerobic and anaerobic conditions) to innocuous, stabilized byproducts. Typically, thermophilic conditions (54 to 65 °C) must be maintained to properly compost soil contaminated with hazardous organic contaminants. The increased temperatures result from heat ...

  • The state of composting and biological waste treatment in the UK

    In 2005/06 3.4 million tonnes of source segregated waste was composted, an increase of 28% on the previous year. 85% was municipal waste, with just over half of this collected at civic amenity sites Less than one per cent of municipal waste was kitchen waste collected at the kerbside 65% of waste composted was composted at dedicated composting / biological treatment sites, with 10% on farm and ...

  • Compost Users Forum: The Applied Thoughts Of A Compost Theorist

    WITHIN a 60-mile radius of my office here in central California, there are 1,000 dairies — each having an average of 2,000 cows. They generate over four million tons of manure annually, so we are pretty much in the manure business whether we want to be or not. Somebody has to manage this material and help the farmers utilize it properly, fulfilling its potential monetary value. That’s what we ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Composting in flanders: the vlaco experience

    Currently, the Flanders waste policy is based on the so-called ‘ladder of Lansink’. Six aerobic composting and one anaerobic digestion plant are operational for the treatment of biowaste. Some new composting plants are foreseen for 1999 and/or 2000. Composting retention time varies from 10 to 15 weeks. Green waste is treated in 15 open air composting plants. With respect to the use of compost ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Composting in flanders: the vlaco experience

    In Belgium, waste policy mainly belongs to the responsibility of the regional authorities. Therefore, apart from some European regulations, Flanders, Wallonia and Brussels have their own laws, rules and strategies with respect to waste management. These different situations are inevitably related to the political, socio-economic and natural conditions of these regions. In execution of the Waste ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Worming the way to finished compost

    SCREENING AND GRINDING When materials from CR&R and other generators are unloaded, a preliminary screening separates out nonorganic contaminants.    Even though there are source separated programs in places like Temecula and Lake Elsinore, there is the occasional appearance of plastic and glass that needs to be sorted out. Next, Bodlak’s crews put materials through a Vermeer tub ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Phosphorus And Compost Use Dynamics

    Organic forms of phosphorus, such as biosolids and compost products, contain low to very low levels of water extractable phosphorus, but increasingly are regulated like inorganic P sources. Phosphorus is one of the 16 essential plant nutrients, and is considered one of the three major plant nutrients (along with nitrogen and potassium). Phosphorus is not only important in root development, but ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Composting Advances in Oregon and Washington

    Over the years, different forces have served as drivers to help grow the composting industry. For example, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it was the perceived landfill crisis that led to state bans on disposal of yard trimmings. Composting also has benefitted from a push to meet recycling goals, which has prompted states and local governments to go beyond yard trimmings and into such ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Troubleshooting the Compost Pile

    While composting is a biological process, we as composters must provide the microorganisms that do the work with the conditions they need to do their job. If there is a problem with the system, then look at it from the point of view of the microbe. What does that microbe need to function, and why isn’t it functioning correctly? Microorganisms need a source of energy organic feedstocks to feed on ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Composting infrastructure trends in the UK

    The European Union's Landfill Directive, which restricts landfilling of biodegradable waste, has made it necessary to develop alternative infrastructures to manage the organic fraction of the solid waste stream. In the United Kingdom, the Landfill Directive has created demand for composting facilities that take source separated organics (SSO), and for anaerobic digestion. Infrastructure also is ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Calculating capacity at composting sites

    The addition of new composting facilities or expansion of capacity at existing ones is becoming more and more difficult as feasible sites are taken out of circulation. This has created interest in maximizing the unit production of compost at composting sites so that they perform as efficiently as possible. The need is especially acute if physical expansion is not possible, but increases in ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Composting Livestock Mortalities

    Performance, composting methods, environmental impacts and biosecurity of the process are evaluated for emergency disposal of cattle by research team at Iowa State University. A THREE-YEAR study was commissioned by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources to evaluate the practical feasibility, performance, environmental impacts and biosecurity of using composting for emergency disposal - should a ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • “Soil Health” And Compost

    In my quest to better understand how compost improves the chemical, physical and biological attributes of soil, I came across a training course created by the Rodale Institute, with support from the Northeast Region Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) Program called “An Introduction to Soil Health.” The course emphasized that if we can improve the overall quality of ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Evaluating Microbiology of Compost

    The fact that not all compost is created equal has both producers and growers looking for ways to successfully evaluate compost quality. Traditional compost analysis has focused on NPK and micronutrient concentrations in an effort to mirror fertilizer analysis. Compost, however, is much more complex than fertilizer and its most significant value to the grower may be far more than its mineral ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Monitoring Moisture In Composting Systems

    Monitoring Moisture In Composting Systems IF YOU SQUEEZE a handful of material and water drips or trickles out, it is the right moisture content for composting.” This bit of hands-on wisdom comes from the proverbial squeeze-test for evaluating moisture in composting piles. It has been uttered by Master Gardeners and other composting educators for many years as a tool for determining, and ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Influence of temperature during the initial phase of Composting on biological activity and emission of Ammonia and dinitrogen oxide

    Composting is a robust and cheap biological treatment method useful for all solid biodegradable waste. The performance of composting can vary substantially depending on managing conditions such as oxygen supply and compost temperature. Oxygen and temperature affects the rate of degradation and may also influence emission of NH3 and N2O. The gaseous N losses during composting from organic ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Conditions for successful composting of industrial Sludges

    The principles of the biological aerobic treatment of industrial sludge, its aims and constraints will first be presented in this paper. The BIOSEC® process, developed by NEXUS Technologies, will than be described in its different phases to approach the technology and the treatment procedure in the best possible way. This presentation would be incomplete without mentioning the costs of the ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Commercial composting provides food for thought

    The retail sector and food manufacturers produce a mountain of waste but, unlike householders, they cannot simply throw it in the compost and wait for it to rot down. The Compost Association told edie about the obstacles in the way of recycling waste from the commercial sector. Compared to household domestic waste, biodegradable matter from the retail and catering sector represents only a small ...

  • Fires at Composting Facilities: Causes and Conditions

    The subject of fires at composting facilities is a bad news/good news situation. The bad news is that fires are more common than we realize. Ask a group of facility operators if they have had to deal with a fire, and the majority will quietly admit they have. The good news is that we don’t realize that fires are fairly common at composting facilities. Most are neither frequent nor destructive ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

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