canopy Articles

  • Electrically driven pumps with a canopy

    Clients regularly ask us for advice when planning their purchases. A common question concerns the electric pump sets: What is the advantage of an electric pump with a canopy compared to an open frame version? Whether it’s a mobile unit or a permanent installation used in the open air, electric pump sets with a closed canopy are growing in popularity every year. ...


    By BBA Pumps

  • Case study - Barbican Canopy

    London System kWp: 2.8 Area: 44.2 m sq Inverter: Kaco Modules Used: PS-C Transparent Series Polysolar supplied BIPV glazing units for a walkway canopy at Prior Weston Primary School, Barbican, London. Objective: Play area canopy designed to offer a dry and safe school yard extension, whilst reducing heat gain and glare in classrooms and providing renewable ...


    By Polysolar Limited

  • Case study - Wilmott Dixon Canopy

    BRE-Watford System kWp: 2.25 Area: 28.6 m sq Inverter: Mastervolt Modules Used: PS-C Transparent Polysolar designed and supplied a retrofit roof garden canopy for Willmott Dixon Healthcare Campus at BRE Innovation Park, Watford. Objective: To provide a weather proof canopy designed to offer a warm light but shaded area for sitting out in while also contributing to ...


    By Polysolar Limited

  • Measurement of Leaf/Canopy Level Reflectance with The UniSpec-SC

    The UniSpec-SC, commonly referred to as a “Reflectometer”, is a single channel, field portable instrument designed for measurement of leaf/canopy reflectance. It features an innovative user interface with integral computer and large, full color LCD, built-in light source and extensive range of accessories for measurement on individual leaves (including needles) and vegetation. It is a ...


    By PP Systems

  • Case study - BIPV Petrol Forecourt Canopy - Sainsbury

    Bishops Waltham System kWp: 16 Area: 242 m sq Inverter: Fronius Modules Used: PS-C Transparent Polysolar were approached for this unique project, the first of its kind, constructing a petrol filling station canopy which could generate energy for the kiosk, whilst providing a pleasant environment for the clients. Objective: Provide an attractive weather-proof canopy ...


    By Polysolar Limited

  • Canopy gas exchange measurements of cotton in an open system

    A portable, open transparent chamber system for measuring canopy gas exchanges was developed and tested. Differentials between incoming and outgoing atmospheric H2O and CO2 concentrations were used to calculate canopy transpiration (E) and net assimilation (A) at 10-s intervals using solenoid valve actuated sample lines connected to an infrared gas analyzer. A programmable data logger controlled ...

  • Case study - BIPV Petrol Forecourt Canopy

    Weymouth System kWp: 23.4 Area: 371 m sq Inverter: Fronius Modules Used: PS-C Transparent Series Polysolar completed a second petrol filling station in Wymouth following the success of the first in Bishops Waltham. Objective: Provide an attractive weather-proof canopy transmitting natural light generating renewable energy to power the site. Result: ...


    By Polysolar Limited

  • Measurement of Canopy/Vegetation Reflectance with the UniSpec-DC

    A good method for sampling reflectance of vegetation canopies is to connect a flexible, lightweight fiber optic cable (also referred to as “Foreoptic”) of a desired length to the detector. This requires a fiber optic with an SMA type connector at one end (to thread on to the detector) and a foreoptic with a defined field-of-view (FOV) at the other end (to limit the field of view to a ...


    By PP Systems

  • Peanut response to planting date and potential of canopy reflectance as an indicator of pod maturation

    Determining when to dig peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) is complicated because of its indeterminate growth habit. Pod mesocarp color is often used an indicator of pod maturation. However, this process is time consuming and is usually based on a relatively small subsample of pods from peanut fields. Research was conducted during 2003–2005 to determine if reflectance of the peanut canopy, using ...

  • Development of canopy reflectance models to predict forage quality of legume–grass mixtures

    Timely assessments of nutritive values of legume-based swards during the growing season can facilitate a targeted and site-specific forage management. This study was undertaken to explore the potential of field spectral measurements for a nondestructive prediction of metabolizable energy, ash content, crude protein (CP), and acid detergent fiber of legume–grass mixtures. A population of 200 ...

  • Tree Canopy Effects on Simulated Water Stress in Southern African Savannas

    A coupled energy and water balance model is used to simulate the effects of large tree canopies on soil moisture and water stress across a series of sites spanning a regional moisture gradient in southern Africa. The model tracks evapotranspiration from five components of the land surface at each site—the tree canopy, the grass under and between tree canopies, and the bare soil under and between ...


    By Springer

  • Interactive effects of carbon dioxide and water stress on potato canopy growth and development

    Reductions in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) canopy growth are observed with mild water stress. Potato growth is enhanced by elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]), but interactions of [CO2] and water stress on canopy formation and dry matter partitioning have not been studied. Two soil-plant-atmosphere research (SPAR) experiments were conducted at 370 or 740 µmol mol–1 [CO2] and six ...

  • The impact of beetle-induced conifer death on stand-scale canopy snow interception

    Bark beetles have killed more than 100,000 km2 of pine forest in western North America, causing trees to lose the majority of their canopy material and potentially leading to enhanced subcanopy snow accumulation. Over a 45-day period, we tested this hypothesis by measuring daily snow accumulation in three living and two dead lodgepole pine stands and in three adjacent clearings. The largest ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Spatial analysis of early wheat canopy normalized difference vegetative index

    Efficient use of real-time canopy sensors requires knowledge of the scale (resolution) of variation in the measured canopy property. Knowing the amount of needed optical data requires estimation of the optimal combination of physical sensor density (number of sensors along the applicator boom) and sensor output density (sensor readings per unit distance along the travel path). The objective of ...

  • Modelling urban canopy and terrain for transport diffusion simulations at sub-mesoscales

    Studies of the transport and dispersion of atmospheric pollutants at the scale of a part or the whole of an urban agglomeration require numerical simulations over domains between a few kilometres and a few tens of kilometers (sub-meso scale to meso-y scale). Current computer capabilities do not allow for a grid resolution sufficiently fine to explicitly simulate the flows at the scale of urban ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Optimization of crop canopy sensor placement for measuring nitrogen status in corn

    Active canopy sensors can be used to assess corn (Zea mays L.) N status and direct spatially-variable in-season N application. The goal of this study was to determine optimal sensor spacing for controlling whole- and/or split-boom N application scenarios for a hypothetical 24-row applicator. Sensor readings were collected from 24 consecutive rows at eight cornfields during vegetative growth in ...

  • Ground-based canopy reflectance sensing for variable-rate nitrogen corn fertilization

    Nitrogen available to support corn (Zea mays L.) production can be highly variable within fields. Canopy reflectance sensing for assessing crop N health has been proposed as a technology to base side-dress variable-rate N application. Objectives of this research were to evaluate the use of active-light crop-canopy reflectance sensors for assessing corn N need, and derive the N fertilizer rate ...

  • Water deficit alters canopy structure but not photosynthesis during the regrowth of Alfalfa

    Growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) following the correction of a water deficit will depend in part on the characteristics of the canopy grown during the water deficit. The current study was undertaken to determine the extent to which canopy structure and photosynthetic capacity are affected in alfalfa plants regrowing following defoliation while exposed to a water deficit. The effects of five ...

  • Distribution of 15N tracers applied to the canopy of a mature spruce-hemlock stand, Howland, Maine, USA

    In nitrogen (N) limited ecosystems fertilization by increases in N deposition may enhance plant growth and thus impact carbon (C) sequestration. However in many experimental N fertilization experiments that test this interaction, soils and not plants are the main fate of additional N. A key methodological feature in many N deposition-C sequestration experiments is the addition of N directly to ...


    By University of Maine

  • Canopy nitrogen reserves: impact on soybean yield and seed quality traits in northern latitudes

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed produced in the upper Midwest of the United States is lower in protein concentration than soybean produced throughout much of the Corn Belt, the southern United States, and Brazil. As protein comprises on average more than 400 g kg–1 of the soybean seed, yields in northern latitudes may be limited by seed protein accrual. Our objective was to examine the role ...

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