grain water activity Articles

  • Postanthesis moderate wetting drying improves both quality and quantity of rice yield

    A major challenge in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in China is to cope with a declining availability of fresh water without compromising grain yield and grain quality. This study was designed to determine if alternate wetting and moderate soil drying during grain filling could maintain grain yield and grain quality. Two rice cultivars, Zhendao 88 (japonica) and Shanyou 63 (indica), were ...

  • Measuring CO2 to Optimise the Bulk Storage of Food

    Meeting the food requirements of a growing global population is becoming increasingly difficult. Despite the need for additional food, it is estimated that 50-60% of grain is lost after harvesting, at a cost of about $1 trillion per year.1 One of the major reasons for lost grain is spoilage due to mould or insect infestation during storage.2 To provide a ...


    By Edinburgh Instruments Ltd

  • An alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime improves root and shoot growth in rice

    A major challenge in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production is to achieve the dual goal of increasing food production and saving water. This study aimed to investigate if alternate wetting and drying regimes could improve root and shoot growth and consequently increase grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE). Two rice varieties were field-grown at Yangzhou, China in 2005 and 2006. Three irrigation ...

  • Assessing the fate and effects of an insecticidal formulation

    A three‐year study was conducted on a corn field in Central Illinois, USA, to understand the fate and effects of an insecticidal formulation containing the active ingredients phostebupirim and cyfluthrin. The objectives of the current study were to 1) determine the best tillage practice (conventional versus conservation tillage) in terms of grain yields and potential environmental risk, 2) ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Application of two vermicomposts on a Rice crop: Effects on soil biological properties and rice quality and yield

    Vermicomposts have been considered as a soil additive to reduce the use of mineral fertilizers because they provide required nutrients, increase cation exchange capacity, and improve water-holding capacity. However, the effect of each vermicompost on soil properties and crop yield depends on its chemical composition. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of incorporating two ...

  • Could food shortages bring down civilization?

    One of the toughest things for people to do is to anticipate sudden change. Typically we project the future by extrapolating from trends in the past. Much of the time this approach works well. But sometimes it fails spectacularly, and people are simply blindsided by events such as today’s economic crisis. For most of us, the idea that civilization itself could disintegrate probably seems ...


    By Earth Policy Institute

  • Different methods for stabilisation of sand dunes using calcium bentonite

    Sand dunes movement in the Arabian arid area hinder land development, expansion of city limits, and diversely affects rural roads, farms, irrigation, and grazing. Early attempts to curb sand movement used agriculture schemes required continuous supply of water; chemical treatment poses environmental concerns. Studies were conducted for sand dune fixation using agricultural and chemical means, but ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • 40 years’ constant pumping - and still going strong

    The pump installed at Shirley Farm, near Montgomery in Powys, transfers water from a 15 feet deep well, along 20 yards of 1” diameter pipework to a 100 gallon tank located in the top storey of the farmhouse. The water is then delivered for use throughout the 20 acre dairy farm as required. Farmer Austin Griffiths, now retired, replaced the original hand pump with a rotary pump when he first moved ...

  • Sustainable Farm Practices for Rice Farming

    Rice is the third-largest crop production, after sugarcane and maize. The main producers of rice are the nations of China, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, and Vietnam. Rice is a staple crop. More than half the people in the world, about 3.5 billion people, rely on its production. Not only is rice a key source of food but it is also good source of income for many smallholder farmers. The Challenges ...


    By Agrivi Ltd

  • Composting and local food merge st urban garden

    Growing Power (GP), a nonprofit urban garden and training center in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, provides affordable produce to neighborhoods without access to fresh food, and processes a variety of organic wastes through composting and anaerobic digestion. Located on a two-acre lot on Milwaukee's north side, the six greenhouses and several hoop houses include raised beds for herbs and greens, ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Arsenic in irrigated paddy soils

    Natural arsenic pollution of drinking water has been reported from over 70 countries world-wide, affecting an estimated 150 million people (Ravenscroft et. al., 2008). About 50 million of these people live in Bangladesh, 30 million in India and 33 million in six other countries of south and south-east Asia. It has recently been recognised that arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for irrigation ...

  • Compost, manure and synthetic fertilizer influences crop yields, soil properties, nitrate leaching and crop nutrient content

    From 1993 to 2001, a maize-vegetable-wheat rotation was compared using either 1) composts, 2) manure, or 3) synthetic fertilizer for nitrogen nutrient input. From 1993 to1998, red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) were used as an annual winter legume cover crop prior to maize production. From 1999 to 2001, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) served as the ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Bunyala rice irrigation scheme (Kenya) - a case study of the munaka outgrowers community based organisation

    Background Kenya's irrigation potential stands at 539 OOOha of which only 105 OOOha (19%) has been| developed and annual growth a lowly 0.5% per annum. This situation justifies increased investment in irrigation development to ensure accelerated growth and sustainable development. Among the constraints cited as limiting irrigation development in Kenya are; low prioritization due to wrong ...


  • The oil intensity of food

    Today we are an oil-based civilization, one that is totally dependent on a resource whose production will soon be falling. Since 1981, the quantity of oil extracted has exceeded new discoveries by an ever-widening margin. In 2008, the world pumped 31 billion barrels of oil but discovered fewer than 9 billion barrels of new oil. World reserves of conventional oil are in a free fall, dropping every ...


    By Earth Policy Institute

  • Redefining ag-wastes as coproducts

    Alan Doering doesn’t have the word “waste” in his vocabulary. As the scientist heading up the Agricultural Utilization Research Institute’s (AURI) coproduct utilization program, Doering sees crop residue, agricultural processing leftovers and biomass as products with value worth exploring. “Every leftover or coproduct has a value,” Doering says. “Our goal is to find the best use with the highest ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Corn, a Vital Staple Food in Africa

    Africa contributes the least to global warming than any other continent. However, it suffers greatly from some of the more serious impacts of climate changes. The statistics are shocking: Africa emits roughly 4% of greenhouse gas emissions, while the United States emits 23% of the total global greenhouse gasses. Unfortunately, along with Asia, Africa is the region where crop production is the ...


    By Agrivi Ltd

  • Losing Soil

    In 1938, Walter Lowdermilk, a senior official in the Soil Conservation Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, traveled abroad to look at lands that had been cultivated for thousands of years, seeking to learn how these older civilizations had coped with soil erosion. He found that some had managed their land well, maintaining its fertility over long stretches of history, and were ...


    By Earth Policy Institute

  • Taxpayer dollars subsidizing destruction

    One way to correct market failures is tax shifting—raising taxes on activities that harm the environment so that their prices begin to reflect their true cost and offsetting this with a reduction in income taxes. A complimentary way to achieve this goal is subsidy shifting. Each year the world's taxpayers provide at least $700 billion in subsidies for environmentally destructive activities, such ...


    By Earth Policy Institute

  • Chicago Council lists three-decade changes in greenhouse gases and average temperature

    In 2011, we wrote a column, “Global warming is happening: How should farmers respond?” (http://agpolicy.org/weekcol/549.html). In that column we began by saying, “There was a time when one could legitimately argue that there was a lack of scientific agreement over the issue of the role of humans in global warming and even whether we were in a ...


    By National Farmers Union

  • Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises: Key Players in Climate Adaptation

    In most developing economies, Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) employ up to 78 percent of the population and account for approximately 29 ...

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