micro-irrigation supply Articles

  • China: agricultural production and groundwater

    As in many parts of the People’s Republic of China, Shanxi Province is experiencing reduced water security for the agriculture sector. Changing climate conditions, including reduced rainfall, are increasing reliance on groundwater resources in the province. Unsustainable groundwater use for food production intensifies the impacts of climate change, and cost-effective adaptation responses ...

  • Keyhole Gardens; Positive Impact on Food Security

    World hunger is a constant problem. It has been one of the most widely discussed topics in recent years. Rapidly increasing global population, limited natural resources, and climatic changes, has resulted in the need for a sustainable increase in food production. Scientists, governments, and organizations across the world are working together to bring innovations and good farming practices which ...


    By Agrivi Ltd

  • Spatial variation in irrigation demand and supply across canal commands in Punjab: a real integrated water resources management challenge

    The Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) is more than a century old. Water allowances and canal water distributions responded to increasing crop water requirements in a southward direction, e.g. higher water allowance in Sindh as compared to Punjab. But within a province, the canal water supplies do not address the issue of difference in irrigation demand. The consequence is unprecedented ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Achieving financial sustainability and recovering costs in bank financed water supply and sanitation and irrigation projects

    This note is a partial response to the above mentioned 2010 Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) evaluation. It covers the specific issues to be addressed in the Water supply and Sanitation (WSS) sector and in the irrigation sector in two distinct parts, because if WSS and irrigation have some common features, there are many distinctions to be made. Among the various water-using sectors, that ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Evaluation of water demand and supply in the south of Iraq

    This paper presents results from the first study that focuses on water resources availability and demand for different purposes in the four oil-rich provinces of southern Iraq. The region accounts for 23% of the surface area and 18% of the country's population, but holds 88% of its oil. A water shortage of 430 Mm3/year for 2010 is estimated for this region where irrigation accounts for 81% of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Plan B 4.0 by the numbers - data highlights on the global food supply

    World agriculture today faces pressure from many sources. On the production side, the amount of unused arable and worldwide has dwindled. Overworked soils are becoming eroded and degraded, and overpumped aquifers are being depleted. Meanwhile, as the global population grows and increasing biofuel production converts grain into fuel for cars, demand for food continues to climb. In Chapters 2 and 9 ...


    By Earth Policy Institute

  • How do sustainability strategies help to mitigate against a limited supply of resources?

    “As we rely extensively on natural resources, our strategies help us to forecast future scarcity issues and ensure supply and demand is in balance. Our local reforestation programmes are good examples. We understand through local assessments, what fuels are used for curing our tobacco and it is vital to us to ensure that our farmers have a ready and sustainable supply available to them year ...


    By thinkstep

  • Supply- and demand-side management of water in Gujarat, India: what can we learn?

    Agriculture in Gujarat has grown rapidly over the last decade, driven at least partly by diversification to high value crops and dairying. High value agriculture requires better water control and offers higher returns for irrigation. Farmers, farm communities and the state government in Gujarat have responded to this requirement by implementing large-scale water supply and demand management ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Investigating the dynamic interactions between supply and demand for rural sanitation, Malawi

    Formative market research is the first step in developing evidence-based sanitation marketing programs. In Malawi, the design, implementation and evaluation of rural sanitation marketing programs has been limited. This study applied a mixed methodological approach to examine the dynamic interactions between the supply and demand of sanitation in three rural districts. The supply assessment ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Variable Demand Irrigation

    2,000 GPM Turbine pump supplies four 500 GPM pivot sprinklers After three VFD’s failed in less than five years, this farmer decided to try a Cycle Stop Valve. Three years later there have been no problems with the CSV. The system is able to supply one pivot just as easily as all four pivots when ...


    By Cycle Stop Valves, Inc.

  • Arsenic in irrigated paddy soils

    Natural arsenic pollution of drinking water has been reported from over 70 countries world-wide, affecting an estimated 150 million people (Ravenscroft et. al., 2008). About 50 million of these people live in Bangladesh, 30 million in India and 33 million in six other countries of south and south-east Asia. It has recently been recognised that arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for irrigation ...

  • Deficit irrigation optimization of cotton with aquacrop

    Given the current pressures to reduce irrigation water use, it is important to optimize the use of water in irrigated agriculture. This work was aimed at determining the optimum level of applied irrigation water (AIW) for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production in southern Spain under several climatic and agricultural policy scenarios. To generate the yield response to variations in AIW, we ...

  • Evaluation of several scenarios for mixing drainage water with fresh for El Salam Canal at shortage supply of Nile water

    El Salam Canal project aims increasing the Egyptian agricultural productivity through agricultural development by irrigating about 260,400 hectare gross of new lands. In order to stretch the limited water supply to cover these new reclaimed areas, fresh water of River Nile is augmented with agriculture drainage water from Hadous and Lower Serw drains. The current proposed mixing ratio is 1:1 of ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Modelling regional general equilibrium effects and irrigation in Canterbury

    We describe the development of a regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for the analysis of issues concerning water supply and (re)allocation in Canterbury, New Zealand. Traditionally, water has been seen as an abundant resource, but growing irrigation demands are now outstripping the supply of water and competing with in-stream uses and non-use values. In the longer term, this ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A farm irrigation pond contaminated with diesel case study

    Due to a broken supply line a Yorkshire farm had a diesel oil spillage of approximately 1300 litres which contaminated the adjacent soil and the farm irrigation lagoon. Scientific Environmental Technologies (SET) were commissioned by the loss adjusters to bioremediate the contaminated site. SET chose Amnite P100 hydrocarbon degrading bacteria as the biological agent to break down the diesel oil. ...


    By Cleveland Biotech Ltd.

  • Irrigation challenges in the sub-humid US Mid-South

    Irrigated area in the Mid-South USA continues to increase and now totals four million ha. Because of low available water holding capacities and shallow root-limiting layers in many soils, irrigation management is difficult. Water quality and water use efficiency impacts under irrigation are poorly understood, but comprehension is necessary if conversion from groundwater to surface water supplies ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Irrigation water demand and implications for groundwater pricing in Pakistan

    This study employs the positive mathematical programming (PMP) approach to estimate groundwater derived demand for irrigation using a cross-sectional dataset of 200 predominantly groundwater irrigated farms from the Punjab province of Pakistan. First, we find that the PMP optimal solution uses less water than what is available (being extracted) in order to make farmers allocate all the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Fertilization and blending alternatives for irrigation with desalinated water

    Received for publication April 29, 2008. In arid-zone agriculture where available irrigation water is saline, desalination is becoming an attractive method for increasing yields and reducing negative environmental consequences. However, irrigation with desalinated water can be problematic if essential nutrients, including Ca, Mg, and S, removed during reverse osmosis, are not reintroduced. We ...

  • Special features of drip-sprinkler irrigation technology

    Irrigation techniques and technology based on principle of regular accumulation of moisture in active layer (surface irrigation, regular sprinkler irrigation) are most common in science and in practice. More progressive is principle of non-stop water supply of plants and soil in conformity to their water consumption. Drip irrigation and impulse sprinkling are based on this principle. The main ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Prospects of desalination for irrigation water in the Sultanate of Oman

    The most limiting factor for the agricultural sector in the Sultanate of Oman is a lack of water, and security of supply in terms of both quantity and quality. Salinization of both soils and groundwater systems along the coastal strip of Al-Batinah has placed a substantial burden on farmers regarding crop selection and, therefore, farm profitability. Desalination of brackish and seawaters ...


    By IWA Publishing

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