John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Lanthanum ions intervened in enzymatic production and elimination of reactive oxygen species in leaves of rice seedlings under cadmium stress

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Rare earth elements (REEs) at proper concentrations were observed to alleviate heavy metal stress. However, the potential mechanisms are not clear. Thus, the present work focused on the mechanisms of lanthanum (La) ions on the generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in leaves of rice seedlings hydroponically cultivated in 30 µM cadmium chloride (CdCl2) for two days. Results showed that the decline of O2 · ‐ or H2O2 was attributed not only to the decreased expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases‐related gene, protein synthesis, and isozymes, but also to the decrease of xanthine oxidase (XOD), diamine oxidase (DAO), and guaiacol peroxidases (POD) isozymes and activities. Superoxide dismutase (SOD)‐, catalase (CAT)‐ and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)‐related genes and isozymes were also differentially upregulated to control ROS accumulation when proper concentrations of La were combined with 30 µM Cd. Based on the results, it may be concluded that La at proper concentrations not only limited the generation of O2 · ‐ and H2O2 from the enzymatic sources, but also promoted the elimination of O2 · ‐ and H2O2 via the up‐regulating expressions of antioxidant enzymes‐related genes and activities in the rice seedling's leaves under Cd stress. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC

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