John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Molecular and physiological responses to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles in arabidopsis

Changes in tissue transcriptomes and productivity of Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated during exposure of plants to two widely used engineered metal oxide nanoparticles, titanium dioxide (nano‐titanium) and cerium dioxide (nano‐cerium). Microarray analyses confirmed that exposure to either nanoparticle altered the transcriptomes of rosette leaves and roots, with comparatively larger numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) found under nano‐titania exposure. Nano‐titania induced more DEGs in rosette leaves, whereas roots had more DEGs under nano‐ceria exposure. MapMan analyses indicated that while nano‐titania up‐regulated overall metabolism metabolism in both tissues, metabolic processes under nano‐ceria remained mostly unchanged. Gene enrichment analysis indicated that both nanoparticles mainly enriched ontology groups such as responses to stress (abiotic and biotic), and defense responses (pathogens), and responses to endogenous stimuli (hormones). Nano‐titania specifically induced genes associated with photosynthesis, whereas nano‐ceria induced expression of genes related to activating transcription factors, most notably those belonging to the ethylene responsive element binding protein family. Interestingly, there were also increased numbers of rosette leaves and plant biomass under nano‐ceria exposure, but not under nano‐titania. Other transcriptomic responses did not clearly relate to responses observed at the organism level. This may be due to functional and genomic redundancy in Arabidopsis, which may mask expression of morphological changes, despite discernable responses at the transcriptome level. Additionally, transcriptomic changes often relate with transgenerational phenotypic development, hence it may be productive to direct further experimental work to integrate high‐throughput genomic results with longer‐term changes in subsequent generations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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