John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Oxidative toxicity of PFCs in green mussel and BAF‐dependent QSAR

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Concerns regarding perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have risen in recent years due to their ubiquitous presence and high persistency. However, data on the environmental impacts of PFCs on marine organisms is very limited. Oxidative toxicity has been suggested to be one of the major toxic pathways for PFCs to induce adverse effects in organisms. To investigate the PFCs induced oxidative stress and oxidative toxicity, a series of antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative damage biomarkers were examined to assess the adverse effects of four commonly detected compounds, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluoroocanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) on green mussel, Perna viridis. Quantitative structure‐activity relationship (QSAR) models were also established. The results showed that all the tested PFCs are able to induce antioxidant response and oxidative damage on green mussels in a dose‐dependent manner. At low exposure levels (0‐100 µg/L), activation of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and SOD) was observed which is an adaptive response to the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by PFCs, while at high exposure levels (100‐10000 µg/L), PFCs were found to inhibit some enzyme activity (GST and SOD) where the organism's ability to respond in an adaptive manner was compromised. The oxidative stress under high PFC exposure concentration also led to lipid and DNA damage. PFC induced oxidative toxicity was found to be closely correlated with the bioaccumulation potential of PFCs. Based on this relationship, QSAR models were established using the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) as the molecular descriptor for the first time. Compared with previous Kow‐dependent QSAR models, the BAF‐dependent QSAR model is more suitable for the impact assessment of PFCs and thus provides a more accurate description of the toxic behavior of these compounds. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC

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