John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Phenotypic and genomic responses to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles in Arabidopsis germinants

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The effects of exposure to nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (nano‐titanium) and cerium oxide (nano‐cerium) on gene expression and growth in Arabidopsis thaliana germinants were studied using microarrays and quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and by evaluating germinant phenotypic plasticity. Exposure to 12 days of either nano‐titania or nano‐ceria altered the regulation of 204 and 142 genes, respectively. Genes induced by the nanoparticles mainly include ontology groups annotated as stimuli responsive, including both abiotic (oxidative stress, salt stress, water transport) and biotic (respiratory burst as defense to pathogens) stimuli. Further analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicates both nanoparticles affected a range of metabolic processes (DNA metabolism, hormone metabolism, tetrapyrrole synthesis, and photosynthesis). Individual exposures to the nanoparticles increased percentages of seeds with emergent radicals, early development of hypocotyls and cotyledons, and those with fully grown leaves. Although there were distinct differences between the nanoparticles affecting molecular mechanisms attributable to enhancing germinant growth, both particles altered similar suites of genes related to various pathways and processes related to enhanced growth. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC

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