Phosphorus forms in conventional and organic dairy manure identified by solution and solid state P-31 NMR spectroscopy
Organic dairy production has increased rapidly in recent years. Organic dairy cows (Bos taurus) generally eat different diets than their conventional counterparts. Although these differences could impact availability, utilization, and cycling of manure nutrients, little such information is available to aid organic dairy farmers in making nutrient and manure management decisions. In this study, we comparatively characterized P in organic and conventional dairy manure using solution and solid state 31P NMR spectroscopic techniques. Phosphorus in both types of dairy manure was extracted with water, Na acetate buffer (100 mmol L–1, pH 5.0) plus 20 mg Na dithionite mL–1, or 0.025 mol L–1 NaOH with 50 mmolL–1 EDTA. Solution NMR analysis revealed that organic dairy manure contained about 10% more inorganic phosphate than conventional dairy manure. Whereas organic dairy manure did contain slightly more phytate P, it contained 30 to 50% less monoester P than conventional dairy manure. Solid state NMR spectroscopy revealed that mono-, di-, and trivalent metal P species with different stabilities were present in the two dairy manures. Conventional dairy manure contained relatively higher contents of soluble inorganic P species and stable metal phytate species. In contrast, organic dairy manure contained more Ca and Mg species of P. These results indicate that P transformation rates and quantities should be expected to differ between organic and conventional dairy manures.