John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and chlorophyll content of soybean seedlings under combined stress of bisphenol A and cadmium

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Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous in the environment due to its continual application in plastics and epoxy resin industry. Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic heavy metal element mainly used in smelting, electroplating and plastic/dye manufacturing. BPA and Cd pollution exist simultaneously in many agricultural regions. However, little information is available regarding the combined effects of BPA and Cd on plants. Here, the combined effects of BPA and Cd on the photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and content of soybean seedlings were investigated using non‐invasive technology. Our data show that the combined treatment of 1.5 mg/L BPA and 0.2 mg/L Cd synergistically improved the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), initial fluorescence (F0), maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII), photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) and chlorophyll content. Moreover, the combined treatment of 1.5 mg/L BPA and 3.0 mg/L Cd increased the F0 and decreased the Pn, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII and ETR, while BPA and Cd exhibited an antagonistic effect. Furthermore, the combined treatment of 17.2/50.0 mg/L BPA and 3.0/10.0 mg/L Cd synergistically decreased the Pn, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, ETR and chlorophyll content, while it increased the F0. Finally, the effects of BPA and Cd on photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content ceased when BPA stress was stopped. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC

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