Study of genotype x environment interaction for chickpea yield in Iran
Plant breeders aim to select genotypes with stable phenotypes across environments. Multienvironment trials (METs) including 3 yr and six locations for 17 genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) were performed in Iran. Bartlett's test of homogeneity of variances was not significant and so the combined analysis was done. This analysis indicated that the environment (E), genotype (G), and the genotype by environment (GE) interaction were significant. Thus, stability analysis was necessary, and so additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) stability parameters and some regression methods were used for a stability analysis. According to regression method, the high-yielding genotype, G8, was more responsive (bi > 1) to improved environmental conditions than the other genotypes. Stability parameters of Tai indicated that genotypes G3 and G17 and stability statistics of AMMI analyses showed that G2 and G3 were the most stable genotypes. The first and the second factors (F1 and F2) of factor analysis explained 73.84% total variance of stability parameters, and F1 separated the Di2 and i from the other parameters. The F2 separated static and dynamic concepts of stability, in which the mean yield, regression coefficient, EVF, SIPCF, and AMGEF parameters had a dynamic concept of stability, and the other remaining parameters had static concept of stability. Finally, according to all stability statistics and regarding the high mean yield, genotype G8 (Flip 93-93) was recommended for national release in Iran, as it adequately demonstrated wide adaptation across environments.