Keywords: temperature distribution, urban parks, Ankara, cooling effects, plant materials, urban heat islands, Turkey, green areas, urban ecosystems, plant distribution, plant density
Temperature distribution and the cooling effects on three urban parks in Ankara, Turkey
In this study, the effects of urban parks on temperature were investigated in the case of three urban parks (Altınpark, Gençlik Park and Kurtuluş Park) of different sizes and supporting different plant densities and distributions in urban areas of Ankara City, Turkey. Local microscale temperature changes caused by green areas within park boundaries and park vicinities exhibited differences depending on spatial (scale), structural (plant distribution pattern and species), and temporal (phenological periods) characteristics. Therefore, green area contribution to urban ecosystems is dynamic, and the result of the joint effects of spatial, structural and temporal characteristics of the area. In this study, plant density and distribution was studied in summer when the leaf grown were completed and determined an important factor for temperature change in the parks. The size of the area supporting vegetation in Gençlik Park was twice the size of Kurtuluş Park, but results showed Gençlik Park was equal in vegetation cover to Kurtuluş Park. However, Kurtuluş Park was cooler in temperature than Gençlik Park due to the structural characteristics of plant materials in the park. In addition, it was determined by mobile measurements that all parks were cooler than the surrounding areas.