Keywords: international education, tertiary education, globalisation, pull factors, institutional factors, country factors, product life cycle, higher education, Asia, Malaysia
The changing landscape of the globalisation of international higher education
The transformation of the higher education sector as a global export industry has proliferated to countries that have been the traditional source of international students. The traditional view of the globalisation of international education, the top-down approach, is no longer adequate to explain the phenomenon. A better model to explain the globalisation of international education, because it also considers the bottom-up approach of the globalisation of international education is through the use of the international product life cycle theory. The changing landscape of international higher education now has also rendered current literatures on the marketing of international higher education, which are based on the top-down approach, questionable. This is so because the assumptions behind the understanding and the theories may no longer be relevant. Thus, there is now a need to review the current understanding or theories pertaining to the marketing of international higher education.