The control of the process and compost quality
The European Commission has adopted a new proposal on landfill whose objective it is to reduce the impact of waste disposal on the environment. The new directive introduces a series of new elements and provides for a number of safeguards with respect to both existing and new landfills.
Disposal of waste is the option of last resort in the hierarchy of waste management principles; the Commission gives clear preference to minimisation and recovery of waste.
The Article 5 of this Directive says that Member States shell set up a national strategy for implementation of the reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfill. By 2002, the total amount of waste going to landfills must be reduced to 75% and by 2010, to 25% (C.E.C., 1997).
According to OECD (Organisation for Economic cooperation and Development) the total amount of waste produced in 1990 in the European Union Countries was more than 2000 million tonnes; of those 200 million tonnes are municipal solid waste (M.S.W.) (OECD, 1993).
However, despite the increasing emphasis on waste prevention, wastes are still increasing. Landfill and incineration, rather than recycling, are still the predominant practices in the management of waste. On emerge, more than 60% of municipal solid waste originated in the European Union Countries is currently disposed into land, about 19% is incinerated, 4% is composted and 3% is subjected to mechanical sorting for material recovery (Stanners and Bourdeau, 1995).