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The effects of ciprofloxacin on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

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We performed our toxicity test with ciprofloxacin (CIP) according to OECD 210, in which we used fertilized eggs of common carp. The tested concentrations were 1, 100, 500, 1000, and 3000 µg L−1. We found accelerated hatching in all groups exposed to CIP, but significant growth reduction only in the group exposed to the highest concentration of CIP (3000 µg L−1). An increased number of macroscopic morphological anomalies were observed on day 6 of the test (after hatching). The highest numbers of macroscopic morphological anomalies were observed in the groups of free embryos and larvae exposed to CIP concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 3000 µg L−1 (20 − 23% of tested samples). A gradual decrease of glutathione S‐transferase activity was detected in all experimental groups exposed to CIP, but significant differences (p < 0.01) were found only in groups treated with 500 and 3000 µg L−1. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase exhibited increased activity in majority of the tested concentrations (p < 0.01, p < 0.05), while decreased glutathione reductase activity was found in the groups exposed to CIP concentrations of 500 and 3000 µg L−1 (p < 0.05). The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in all experimental groups exposed to CIP. The lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) of CIP was 1 µg L−1. These results suggest that hatching, early ontogeny, occurrence of morphological anomalies, activity of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes and lipid peroxidation in fish can be affected by CIP. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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