John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The effects of humic acid on the uptake and depuration of fullerene aqueous suspensions in two aquatic organisms

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We investigated the uptake and depuration of fullerene aqueous suspensions (nC60) in two aquatic organisms: Daphnia magna (Daphnia) and zebrafish. The effects of humic acid (HA) were examined to elucidate its possible mechanisms in the aquatic environment. The uptake was concentration‐dependent in both organisms, and the maximum uptake concentration of nC60 in Daphnia (2268 ± 158 mg/kg) was approximately one order of magnitude higher than that in zebrafish (222 ± 30 mg/kg) due to the larger gut volume ratio to the mass of Daphnia or its high uptake efficiency. HA reduced the uptake of nC60 in Daphnia and zebrafish due to the size effect and the polarity alternation of nC60. The depuration patterns were rapid for Daphnia and slow for zebrafish, and the differences were most likely due to the different water exchange frequencies between organisms. The remaining nC60 percentages were approximately 20% for Daphnia and 30% for zebrafish after 48 h depuration, suggesting that a large nC60 burden still existed for both aquatic organisms and the need for further studies on the potential for trophic transfer. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC

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