John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The effects of the amphibian chytrid fungus, insecticide exposure, and temperature on larval anuran development and survival

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Chytridiomycosis, a disease caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been implicated as a cause of amphibian declines. Susceptibility may be influenced by environmental factors that suppress the immune response. We conducted a laboratory study to examine the effect of temperature, insecticide exposure, and Bd exposure during larval anuran development. In our experiment, we examined the consequences of exposure to Bd, an insecticide (carbaryl or malathion), and static or fluctuating temperature (15 C, 20 C, 25 C, or 15 to 25 C 72‐hr flux) on larval development through metamorphosis of the Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla). High and fluctuating temperature had negative effects on survival in the presence of Bd. Insecticides inhibited the effects of Bd; time to tail resorption of Pacific treefrogs decreased when tadpoles were exposed to carbaryl. Our study indicates that abiotic factors may play a role in the host‐pathogen interactions in this system. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC

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