Keywords: Latin America, environmental impact, genetically modified crops, GM crops, developing countries, genetic modification, GMOs, agricultural biotechnology, conservation tillage, pesticide reduction
The GMO experience in North and South America
This paper surveys the level and distribution of economic impacts of GMOs in the Americas from 1996–2004. Key institutional factors influencing GMO diffusion are discussed. In 2004 the Americas accounted for 94% of world GMO area. Diffusion has been concentrated; four countries, four crops and two traits account for the vast majority of area. The economic benefits of the diffusion of GMOs have been widely shared among farmers, industry, and consumers even though delivery has been through the private sector. GMOs have had a favourable environmental impact by facilitating reduced pesticide use and adoption of conservation tillage.