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Uptake, distribution, depletion and in ovo transfer of isomers of hexabromocyclododecane flame retardant in diet‐exposed American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

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Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a flame retardant and is a global contaminant, yet the toxicokinetics of HBCDD diastereoisomers remains unknown in wildlife species. The present study examined in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius), (diasterio) isomer‐specific HBCDD uptake, depletion, tissue distribution, and transfer to eggs in a dietary dosing study with a HBCDD technical mixture (HBCDD‐TM). Adult tissue and plasma collections were from separate cohorts of unpaired individual males (n = 10) and females (n = 10), exposed for 21 days to 800 ng/g wet weight of HBCDD‐TM (in safflower oil and injected into their cockerel (brain) diet), followed by a 25‐day depuration period. For control adult tissue and plasma collections, there was a separate cohort of 12 males only. For egg collections, separate cohorts of 11 control pairs (total of n = 22 birds) and 20 HBCDD‐exposed pairs (total of n = 40 birds) were allowed to breed and their eggs were collected (and thus n = 19 exposed and n = 10 control eggs). Sum (Σ) HBCDD concentrations were near or below detection (<0.01‐0.1 ng/g wet weight (ww)) in all control samples, but quantifiable in all samples from exposed birds (no differences (p > 0.05) between males and females). Arithmetic mean ΣHBCDD concentrations were highest in fat >> eggs > liver > plasma. The mean ΣHBCDD depletion rate in plasma between the uptake and depuration periods was estimated to be 0.22 ng/g per day with a half‐life (t1/2) of ∼15 days. The γ‐HBCDD diastereoisomer was > 60% of the ΣHBCDD in plasma after the uptake period, and similar to the HBCDD‐TM (∼80%). α‐HBCDD was > 70% of the HBCDD in plasma, fat, liver and eggs after the depuration period, and this α‐HBCDD domination indicated isomer‐specific accumulation due to selective metabolism, uptake, protein binding and/or in ovo transport. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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