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Using in situ pore water concentrations to estimate the phytotoxicity of nicosulfuron in soils to corn (Zea mays L.)

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The phytotoxicity of an herbicide in soil is typically dependent on the soil characteristics. To obtain a comparable value of the concentration that inhibits growth by 50% (IC50), 0.01 M CaCl2, excess pore water (EPW) and in situ pore water (IPW) were used to extract the bioavailable fraction of nicosulfuron from five different soils to estimate the nicosulfuron phytotoxicity to corn (Zea mays L.). The results indicated that the phytotoxicity of nicosulfuron in soils to corn depended on the soil type, and the IC50 values calculated based on the amended concentration of nicosulfuron ranged from 0.77 to 9.77 mg/kg among the five tested soils. The range of variation in IC50 values for nicosulfuron was smaller when the concentrations of nicosulfuron extracted with 0.01 M CaCl2 and EPW were used instead of the amended concentration. No significant difference was observed among the IC50 values calculated from the IPW concentrations of nicosulfuron in the five tested soils, suggesting that the concentration of nicosulfuron in IPW could be used to estimate the phytotoxicity of residual nicosulfuron in soils. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2012 SETAC

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