John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Variations in lethal and sublethal effects of cypermethrin among aquatic stages and species of anuran amphibians

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Unpredicted variation in levels of risk to organisms to xenobiotics can be observed, despite the use model species to predict the effects of chemicals in the environment. Physiological and morphological differences between species and life stages may lead to differences in sensitivity, while seasonal and spatial variation in pesticide concentrations may affect the level of risk faced by organisms in the environment. Because anurans breed in aquatic habitats subject to contamination by run‐off and spraying they are particularly vulnerable to pesticides. We exposed embryos, newly hatched larvae, and larvae with limb buds of 3 anuran amphibian species, Pseudacris regilla, Rana cascadae and R. aurora, for 48h to either 0.5 or 5.0 µg/L cypermethrin under laboratory conditions. We monitored hatching success, larval survival, and measured growth. Additionally, we assayed avoidance behavior 2wk after exposure, or 2wk after hatching for individuals exposed as embryos. Hatching and survival were not affected in animals of any species exposed as embryos. However, after exposure as embryos and as newly hatched larvae, P. regilla displayed behavioral abnormalities in response to prodding. Cypermethrin increased mortality in P. regilla exposed in both larval stages. Cypermethrin also increased mortality in larval R. cascadae when exposed at the early stage larvae. These results indicate variation in sensitivity to environmentally relevant concentration of cypermethrin among anuran species and life stages. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC

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