This paper reviews water institutional reforms in Sri Lanka by contrasting those observed during the 1980s with those proposed during the 1990s. While the earlier reforms focused on the irrigation sector that yielded quicker benefits and low political risks, recent reforms have covered macro institutions and the whole water sector where the benefits are gradual and less visible but with high political risks. As the earlier reforms were packaged as part of larger investment programs, they had in-built incentives and strong proponents. But recent reforms not only lacked such conditions but also faced an ideologically charged hostile environment. Despite the current failure of the reforms, their future prospect is not that bleak in view of the emerging consensus on most issues and the continuing government commitment to reform. The Sri Lankan case also provides evidence for the effects of transaction cost and political economy factors, the tactical benefits of reform packaging, sequencing and timing, and the role of stakeholders' perception, learning and information in articulating the demand for change.
Landscape trees benefit from potassium-based superabsorbent polymer-amended backfill soil
Weiner (1975) put it aptly when he stated that “However rewarding the act of tree planting may be, watching a young tree slowly die can be spiritually defeating.” Landscape plants, noted Richard Harris (1983) in his well-known “Arboriculture” book, “probably suffer more from moisture-related problems than from any other cause.” The success of tree planting programs must be measured by the health of the plants after planting and in years that follow. Tree survival can be assured...
It’s time to stop overspending our freshwater budget
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Senix Water Level Sensors Drive Irrigation Automation Project
Australia’s Water Crisis Irrigation management is serious business in Australia especially within the Murray-Darling Basin, a 1,000,000 square kilometer watershed that is home to Australia’s most productive agricultural land. The basin’s 23 rivers have some of the lowest and most variable flows in theworld. A massive system of dams, lakes and canals stores water from mountain snowmelt and seasonal rains and distributes it to farms and communities throughout the growing season. The Murray-Dar...
100 Simple Ways To Save Water
To improve water conservationinstall a rain sensor, it turns off your irrigation when it rains. Use a weather-based controller. The use ofsmart controllers can reduce water usage 24% a year on average. Learn about available rebate programs by checking with local or state water agencies. Rebates help offset irrigation investments. It’s important to partner with the right expertise (contractor/water manager), and smart technology to achieve conservation and plant health goals. Sustainable savings goals...
Treating wastewater as a resource
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