This paper reviews water institutional reforms in Sri Lanka by contrasting those observed during the 1980s with those proposed during the 1990s. While the earlier reforms focused on the irrigation sector that yielded quicker benefits and low political risks, recent reforms have covered macro institutions and the whole water sector where the benefits are gradual and less visible but with high political risks. As the earlier reforms were packaged as part of larger investment programs, they had in-built incentives and strong proponents. But recent reforms not only lacked such conditions but also faced an ideologically charged hostile environment. Despite the current failure of the reforms, their future prospect is not that bleak in view of the emerging consensus on most issues and the continuing government commitment to reform. The Sri Lankan case also provides evidence for the effects of transaction cost and political economy factors, the tactical benefits of reform packaging, sequencing and timing, and the role of stakeholders' perception, learning and information in articulating the demand for change.
It is time to end food waste
Food waste is a global, billion-dollar problem. The White Paper ‘It’s time to end food waste’ explores the origins, the reasons and some exciting solutions for the global food waste problem. Supercharged composters, mini-ventilators, smart lipid films are just some of the solutions to reduce the 1.3 billion tons of food that is currently wasted. Scientists and entrepreneurs present their vision about tackling the global food waste problem. The White Paper ‘It’s time to end food...
Getting to Know Cannabis Farming Israel’s agricultural industry is ripening for the beginning of medical cannabis export, with the expected passage of medical export legislation by the end of the year. The timing is particularly fruitful for growers who are interested in succeeding in a new venture that is still in its infancy. The rewards are also high: Israel’s Health and Finance ministries have assessed that international exports would generate $4 billion in revenues annually. Getting started in...
Heap Leach Pad Monitoring - Case Study
2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging Objective Study was performed at a Heap Leach Copper Mining site in Chile to determine the impervious zones for the irrigation. The first base survey is performed to locate the impervious zones to be able to improve irrigations. The second monitoring survey is performed after 50 days of irrigation through drilled two boreholes to observe the improvement of irrigations. Layout The surveys were performed in 12th of May and 1st July 2015 in Chile with AGI SuperSting WiFi R8...
Times are changing: Wastewater as a resource
Times are definitely changing. It used to be that wastewater from whatever source – domestic, agricultural, industrial – was something to collect and pipe away as quickly and efficiently as possible. There was more water coming out of the ground or falling from the sky, so why bother investing time and money cleaning water that had already been used? Now, thanks to issues like population growth and climate change, more and more people around the planet are realizing that water can be treated and...
How food production impacts global groundwater supplies
The ever-increasing global trade in food is accelerating groundwater depletion in many areas of the world, emptying aquifers faster than they can be naturally recharged, according to newly released research.Although groundwater depletion is a well-known and frequently studied issue, the new research focuses on how groundwater supplies are affected by international trade.Agricultural product demand has increased pressure on nonrenewable groundwater supplies, which are frequently used for irrigating crops such as...