Introduction. Mechanical forces exerted by various recreation activities and the concept of protection. Major changes in vegetation as a result of wear. Changes in communities and plant species as a result of wear. Changes in communities and plant species as a result of wear. Plant populations and mechanical wear. Mechanical wear and plant form and function. The physiological reactions of plants to damage. Plant strategies (resistance, survival and recovery) and regeneration of communities. Introduction to soils. Litter and organic material. Soil bulk density, porosity and penetrability. Soil water, air temperature and nutrients. The living soil. Plant roots, soils and growth. Soil erosion. Soil deposition and recovery. A classification of disturbance to animals. Invertebrates. Reptiles. Birds. Bears. Deer. Sheep, goats, and chamois, with a note on gazelles. Small mammals. Large mammals. The impacts of water-based recreation. Fish. Aquatic mammals. Conclusion.
- Authors / Editors:
- M. Liddle
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